Thursday, 8 December 2016

Technology of Charkha Spinning

This document is for textile technologist. You can download it from   here  or from here.

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Wednesday, 7 December 2016

What is the difference between Khadi and Handloom

Khadi means a cloth woven on Handloom using Hand –Spun Yarn. Handloom means cloth woven on Handloom using Mill-spun yarn.

Khadi cloth is generally much more porous. This gives Khadi a soft and well ventilated feel. The twist of the hand woven yarn is generally less than that of mill yarn. This less twist helps improve its absorption properties.

Yarn spun on Charakhaa has a twist in the direction of letter 'S'. If we twist the yarn in the direction of normal tightening of the right handed screw, the yarn gets more twist. ( The mill yarn has an opposite twist in the direction of letter 'Z').

Interestingly the count of Khadi is measured in km/kg or N/m. The general relationship between Nm and English count is 0.59 x Nm. Thus khadi that is sold in the khadi store as 250s count khadi is actually 250 x 0.59= 147s count, which is also very good.

Generally 1 meter of roving is converted to 20 m of yarn for Amber charkha.

It would be curious to know that one tree yields 1-2 kg of raw cotton. 40% of it can be used for spinning. As a thumb rule, from 1 kg of yarn of 40s count we can weave 7 to 8 sq meter of cloth ( of course, it also depends upon the reed and pick).

As a trivia, it takes 5-6 hours on Amber charkha to make a yarn required from 1 sq meter of cloth. One weaver family can weave about 200-250 meters of cloth per month.


Watch this movie on Khadi

and this movie

This movie narrates self employment through Khadi: 

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Sunday, 2 October 2016

What is Khana or Khunn Saree Blouse Fabric

Guledgudd Khana is the name of the fabric which has obtained the Geographical Indication ( GI) Registration.

The small design motifs are a speciality of these fabrics. These designs are produced using extra threads and make the motifs appear bolder and enhance the attractiveness of the fabrics.

The basic raw material is silk, viscose and cotton yarn. However, increasingly polyester is also used. Dyeing of cotton and silk yarn is done in open using firewood. Indigo dyeing using buried earthern pots is also practised.

Street sizing is practiced. Weaving of the Khana requires a dobby attachment in both handlooms and powerlooms. The handlooms are either pit looms or plain looms. These are narrow width looms of  32 to 36 inches width.

Guledgudd is a cluster of villages in the Badami area of Bagalkot district of Karnataka. This is a great compliment to Ilkal sarees and other sarees also woven in Karnataka. Most of the designs are replicas of Suranarayana Mukta ( Sun God), Siddeswar Mukta ( Siddeswara God), Theru ( Chariot), Ane Hejje ( Footsteps of elephants), Tulsi Pan or Sooji Mallige ( Frangrance Giving Flower).These are woven by Devanga and  Veerashaiva community.

The structure of a khunn Fabric is like this:

1. Extra Warp: It is usually in viscose with yarn count of about 75/2. Sometimes silk of 16/18 denier is also used.

2. Ground Warp: It is usually of silk of 16/18 denier or polyester 80s or 30s count.

3. Border Warp: It is usually of silk of 16/18 denier or polyester 80s or 30s count. Sometimes mercerised cotton of 120s count is also used.

4. Weft: Most of the time it is of cotton of 40s or 60s count.

A few of the designs:


Kalawar Balli


Kavalihuva Putani


Suryanarayana Sudarshna

Kolu Teru



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Sunday, 12 June 2016

Jamnagri Bandhani

Jamnagri Bandhani Technique is an ancient tie-and-dye technique practised in the regions of Saurashtra and Kutchh in Gujarat of India.

In this process, the fabric is tied in various patterns using nails, beads or grain which prevent the color from coming in these tied areas during dyeing.

You can go through the complete process here. However, briefly the process is as follows:

a. The bleached cloth is printed with design using wooden blocks.

b. The cloth is then rolled and tied using thick threads, wound usually an interval of one inch. The process is done by women. The dots to be resist dyed are pushed up from the reverse side of the cloth by the nails of artisan's left small finger, then the heads of the pushed up parts are tightly tied in knots. Cotton threads are used for knots.

c. Then dyeing commences. The first shade before tying is yellow shade. Then it is dyed in other colors.

A few of the products using Jamnagri Bandhani Technique are mentioned here

1. Panetar

Panetar is a white saree with red tie-dye border. Traditionally in Gujarat region, the wife wears panetar saree gifted from her mother's brother. Later she wears the Gharchola sari gifted by her in-laws.

2. Gharchola

Gharchola is white and yellow tie-dyed on a red background with checked pattern of gold plated thread. It has auspicious patterns like elephant, flowers and mango.

3. Virbhol

4. Barbaug

Sources: 1 2 3 4 5 
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