Friday, 30 July 2010

Dabu Vs. Ajrak

Dabu is an example of mud resist fabric while Ajrak is an example of Lime resist fabric

Tuesday, 27 July 2010


This decorative technique joins two pieces of fabric or lace leaving a space in between to allow for stitches. The fabric edges may be corded or folded. This technique also works well when attaching decorative lace to fabric.


Cotton Lycra Churidars

Be careful while checking Cotton + Lycra Churidars for Stretch. If it is more than it will be more like Slacks. As then the bagging will not be more.

Saturday, 24 July 2010

Some Notes on Theory of Design

According to Goldstein design is defined as any arrangement of lines, forms, colour, and textures.

 Design is classified into two types: structural and decorative designs.

 Structural design is a form of construction that is built into the cloth during the process of its manufacturing.

 Weaving is the most common method of producing structural design. Non-woven methods like knitting, lace making can also be included in this category.

 Decorative design is applied to the surface of the cloth to ornament it.

 The common method of producing decorative design in the field of textiles includes printing, dyeing, embroidery, appliqué and painting in addition to trimmings and certain finishing methods.

 Decorative or ornamental design may be expressed five ways –naturalistic/conversational, Stylized/floral, geometric, abstract and ethnic forms.

 Naturalistic designs/ conversational:

This depicts real objects in a natural manner. Flowers, animals, plant forms, human figure of any other object may be selected for representation certain traditional patterns. They also called novelty patterns. Examples are Animals, animal skins, cartoons, fruit, games, toys, mythological designs, vegetables, shells, sports and jungle etc.


Stylized designs/ Floral designs:

These distort real objects. In this natural designs are simplified, exaggerated, rearranged or even distorted to achieve the purpose of the design. In textile industry, patterns of richly coloured, delicately petaled roses and patterns of rose’s sharp thorns are both referred to as floral. The floral category includes all the gatherings of the flower garden, in fact including grasses, but agricultural produce like fruit and vegetables is considered a conversational subject. Floral motifs are more common in women’s clothes and furnishing materials. Examples of floral patterns are


a) All over non-directional: The motifs of the patterns cover more than 50 % of the field. Such layouts are popular with textile and fashion designers because they tend to disguise a pattern repeat.

 b) Allover set: It is a formal layout of grids and diagonals.

 c) Baskets, flowerpots and vases: These motifs help to organize a floral pattern, providing a visual focus. Flower spilling out of basket can have a romantic, uplifting effect. Flowerpots and vases resolve the issue of how to deal with plants untidy roots and stems.

 d) Bouquets and nosegays: These are popular with designers because they offer a way to combine a variety of flowers in one motif. They evoke images of romance, giving gifts- and sentiments of spring.

 Geometric designs:

These are based on pure forms of the circle, rectangle and triangles etc. Geometric motifs include stripes, dots, checks, and plaids as well as many less usual forms. A geometric is an abstract or non-representational motif, a shape that is not a picture of something out in the real world. Examples of geometric designs are basket weave design, check board, chevron and herringbone weave, diagonal stripes, diaper pattern, ogee pattern, plaids and polka dots

 Abstract designs:

These have little or no reference to real object. Abstract implies an element of impression and a greater freedom than is found in most geometric designs. This type of design is used in modern art.

 Ethnic designs:

Most of the patterns illustrated in this chapter however were produced not for the overseas market but for the domestic one. Ethnic fashions – meaning in textile vocabulary, any pattern or style with a foreign or exotic feeling – come and go in western design. The ethnic styles have their day in western design and then submerge, to reappear Whenever some one senses that the time is right for a new twist on the constant demand for a folkloric pattern. Examples are American Indian look, batik and Indonesian look, Egyptian look, Mexican design and paisley, tie and dye patterns.


Art movements and period styles:

Designs like these are often the links between cloth and the fine arts- they are part of movements and ideas of the age, and are moved to carry theme through in textiles. Examples are Jacobean looks and super graphics

 For each of these ways one can interpret the designs based on one of the following crieteria:

Motif: the most important factor in any design, determines the family to which the pattern belongs. This is the basic image –a rose, a square, a clown a paisley

 Layout: It describes the arrangement of the motif- whether it is spaced widely or closely on the ground, in neat order or apparently at random, or in rows that form stripes.

 Colour: designs are so classified when a particular dye- indigo, madder or Turkey red say –is the strongest element of their look.


You can learn theory of creating patterns here



Badla, Kasab, Mukaish and Tested Zari

Plain golden or silver wires are called ‘Badla’ and when these wires are wound around a thread they are called ‘Kasab’, spangles of metal are ‘Sitara’ and tiny dots made out of badla are called ‘Mukaish’. The days of using real gold or silver are now history, what you now get is synthetic
zari or ‘tested zari’.

Paako Embroidery

Paako means solid. It is a tight square chain and double buttonhole stitch embroidery, often with black slanted satin stitch outlining. 

Source of Image is Niya's World. Source of Images of Stitches is Needlecrafter


Friday, 23 July 2010

Kharek Embroidery


 Kharek embroidery is first outlined in black double running stitch, and then filled in with satin stitch, the end result is of cluster of bar like shapes.

Thursday, 22 July 2010

Soof Embroidery



Soof (lit. “triangle”) is a technique counted out from the back of the fabric. Geometrical, whimsical variations of traditional motifs, including stylized flowers and figures, convey wishes of fertility and prosperity for the newlyweds. The designs are created with surface-satin stitches of varying lengths that allow most of the valuable silk to be visible on the front. 

Malkha Fabric - A product of Microspinning

Sometimes back I have written an article on microspinning. I have also mentioned how at Chirala in Andhra Pradesh, a fabric by the name of Malkha Cotton is being produced from microspinning. 

I am glad that the Malkha fabric has become one of the choices of the designers and caught the attention of the media so-much-so that an article in Mint is devoted to this fabric. The source of the image is website of Malkha. 

The technology of spinning is hailed as Decentralised Cotton Yarn making-essentially using the same technology from Vortex as that of microspinning.

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Wednesday, 21 July 2010

Tabby Silk and Mulberry Silk

Be careful about knowing the difference between Tabby Silk and Mulberry Silk.

Saturday, 17 July 2010

Telephone Threads

Telephone threads are embroidery yarn- 100% Rayon Filament or Trilobal Polyester Yarn. The count is 100 D /2 ply to 180D/2 ply. Generally 100D/2ply or 120D/2 ply is used for single hand powered embroidery machines.

Fabric Used in the Pockets of Shorts, Capris or Trousers

The fabric used in the pockets of shorts, capris or trousers is sheeting ( 30s)

Sunday, 11 July 2010

Texturing of Polyester

Texturising is a process to develop the warmth properties of synthetic by increasing the bulkiness of yarn. A basic discussion on texturing can be viewed here.

To know more about the business of a texturising unit, one can view the draft prospectus of a company which was filed to the Security and Exchange Board of India here.

Specifications of a draw texturing machines can be viewed here.

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Sunday, 4 July 2010

Spirality and Skew in Single Jersey- Causes and Remedies

This question is posted in a discussion by one of the readers:

I need a solution to control the skew and spirality of single jersey 160g with 30/s. Please provide me with some solution 

Spirality is a dimensional distortion in circular knitted fabric. Spirality is bad as it leads to displacement of seams and mismatched patterns. It can also leads to sewing difficulties. The major cause of spirality is the twist in roving and yarn. To minimize spirality, Z-twist yarns should be knotted on clockwise rotating machine and S-twist yarns on counter clockwise rotating machines. Tighter Fabics exhibit less spirality compared to looser fabrics which means that finer gauge machines will reduce spirality.

It can also be reduced by setting the twist either by autoclave treatment, yarn dyeing or using balanced plied yarns. 

For more information SITRA has a nice Technical brief here

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Thursday, 1 July 2010

Kasuti Embroidery

Kasuti Embroidery

It is a traditional embroidery of the state of Karnataka and is done by counting the threads of the warp and weft with the designs traced or implanted as outlines. 

There are essentially four types of kasuti embroidery. They are Neyge Kasuti, Murgi Kasuti, Menthya Kasuti and Gavanthi Kasuti. Gavanti and Murgi comprise a straight and zig zag stitch. The stitch is identical on both sides of the cloth where as Menthe and Negi Stitch are dissimilar on either side of the fabric. The Difference between Menthe and Negi Stitch is that while the Menthe stitch resembles a cross-stitch, the Negi stitch provides a woven style. These stitches are dissimilar on either side of the fabric.

The Basis of Gavanti and Murgi Stitich is Hoblein Stitich. To understand the concept of Hoblein stitch, you can visit this site.

Excellent Material on Kasuti Embroidery is available in this document

An equally amazing tutorial on Kasuti Embroidery is available in this blog and in this blog. Another tutorial is available here in the same blog.

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