Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Orissa Ikat Saris- Commercials and Value Chain

This is as per diagnostic study conducted by the Government:

The following types of Saris are studied:

1. Double Ikat Cotton (of 2/120s cotton) or "Sakta" or "Passa Palli" saris
2. Sambalpuri Cotton Single Ikat Saris ( of 2/120s to 2/80s)
3. Tussar silk/Bafta (Cotton+ Tussar) saris

Mostly, pit looms of up to 52” – 56” inches are being used in the cluster in which Dobbys of
4 to 12 hooks are used for borders. Nearly 70 – 80% of the looms of the cluster have a
dobby attachment

Value Chain Analysis

· Raw material accounts for 28.6% in single Ikat Sambalpuri sari and 47.2% in Cotton / Silk ‘Bafta’ sari with respect to Cost Price
· For single Ikat Sambalpuri sari, app 18% of value (with respect to cost price) is added in tying and dying stage
· Value addition is mainly at the weaving stage (47.2% both in Single Ikat Sambalpuri Sari and 47.1% in Cotton / Silk ‘Bafta’ Sari) with respect to cost price
-Dyeing & Sizing provide nearly 5.5% value to the cost of the sari.
· Marketing mark ups add up to 10% and 22% respectively on the cost price of sari.

Loom Productivity

1. In 5 days 11 metres of kurta fabric  is produced in 1 loom.
2.  In 2 days 10 metre of Salwar is produced in 1 loom.
3. In 3 days 10 metre of dupattas is produced in 1 loom.
4. Silk Sari: In 5 days 1 sari is produced in 1 loom
5. Cotton Single Ikat Sari: In 8 days 2 saris are produced in 1 loom
6. Cotton Double Ikat Sari: In 10 days 2 saris are produced in 1 loom.


Why Fabrics Shrink after Soaking and Washing

In an earlier article regarding the shrinkage of cotton ( Why Cotton Shrinks), the general causes were discussed. There is an excellent study done by Veena Verma of BMN College which looks in depth across the various factors related to yarn that leads to shrinkage. She tested 24 samples from very light weight to heavy weight for dimensional stability after soaking and 25 washings  and the following are some very useful insights from the studies:

1. Basic reason for shrinkage is the relaxation which is the tendency of the yarn to revert to its normal and un stretched dimensions this is called relaxation shrinkage. Most fabrics are produced under tension which leave strains in the fabric. Usually several cleanings are required to relax it completely. 

2. When the yarns are wet, they swell, and consequently the warp thread has a longer bending path to take round a swollen weft thread. The warp length must either increase in length or alternatively, the weft threads must move close together. 

3. Fabrics shrinks after soaking and percentage significantly increases after repeated washing. 

4. The ends per inch and shrinkage are inversely related. As the number of ends increase, shrinkage percentage decreases. There is no clear trend between shrinkage and picks per inch. This is true for both soaking and washing. 

5. Higher the number of Ends per inch than picks per inch, shrinkage values are reduced. 

6. More the cloth cover, less is the warp way and weft way shrinkage on soaking, this is not true for washing. 

7. The fabric with coarse yarn count has more shrinkage and fabrics with finest count have the lowest shrinkage. 

8. More the twist multiplier, higher is the shrinkage on washing. 

9. There is no correlation in cloth weight and thickness on shrinkage.  

Technical Specifications of Terry Rubia

A very popular fabric used for blouses for Sarees is called Rubia. Rubia is available as 100% cotton but a majority of it is a Polyester Cotton Blend of 67:33. The construction is either 2x2 or 2x1. The following are the technical parameters for the fabric:

Content/Composition: 70% Polyester, 30% Cotton
Weave: Plain
EPI (finished): 100
PPI ( Finished): 80
Yarn Count : Warp: 2/94s PC blend - High Twist ( single TM: 3.06, Double: 5.29)
Yarn Count: Weft: 2/94s PC blend- High Twist ( single TM: 3.06, Double: 5.29

Here the yarn is a simple ply yarn made of two singles evenly twisted together. This type of yarn is found in 2 by 2 rubia fabric. It has two plies of yarn in both directions.

Normally this fabric is available in 36" width. The fabric has a tensile strength of 41.25 kgf (warp) and 20.25 kgf( weft)- (20x 5 cms strip) and tear strength of 928 gm( warp) and 800 grams (weft)- KMI tear tester.

The colorfastness to washing, crocking, heat press and perspiration is 4-5. Dimensional stability after 3 cycles is 2%. 2% bow or skew and a rating of 4 wrt shade change and pilling in Abrasion ( 10K cycles). Washing shrinkage max lengthwise is 2% and widthwise is 1%.

Sunday, 23 March 2014

Technical Specifications of a Polyester Crepe Saree

A typical polyester crepe sari has  the warp and weft of 100% polyester of 75 denier, the TPM of warp and weft is 1800 S&Z alternate. No. of filaments in a yarn of both warp and weft is 70 each. EPI is 132 and PPI is 86. It has a width of  44.5 inches. GSM is 72.

The ideal quality requirements and tolerance are as given below:

1. Denier: + - 5%
2. Twist per meter: +/-5%
3. No. of filaments in yarn +/- 2
4. No. of Threads per inch in warp and weft: +5%/-2.5%
5. Width : +/- 0.5"
6. Length : +/-2 cm
7. GSM: +/-3%

Other Parameters

8. Breaking Strength on 5cm x 20 cm strip, N(KGf): Warp: 240 (24.4), Weft: 190 (19.3)
9. Tear Strength , N (kgf): Warp 20 (2.0), Weft 15 (1.5)
10. Color Fastness Rating due to Light ( Change in Color):5, Washing (Change in Color):4, Staining on adjacent fabric 3-4, Perspiration acidic and alkaline (Change in Color):4, staining on adjacent fabric:4,
Rubbing- Dry-4, Wet-3, Hot Pressing: change in color-4, Staining on adjacent fabric:4
11. Crease Recovery Angle (Degrees)- Dry and Wet (240)- Minimum

BIS has to say the following about this property:

"The ability of a fabric to retain pressed-in creases and to recover from creasing is an important property, especially in case of apparel fabrics. The need for standardizing a method for evaluating crease recovery of
different fabrics has been increasingly felt with the introduction of crease resistant fabrics. When creasing force is removed from the creased fabric, it tends to recover and the creases in the fabric start diminishing at
varying rates. The magnitude of the crease recovery angle as measured according to this standard is taken as an indication of the ability of a fabric to recover from creasing.

A crease-free rectangular specimen of prescribed dimensions is folded in half so that the two limbs of the strip touch each other face to face, under a specified load and maintained in the state for a specified period.
After the creasing load is removed, the specimen is allowed to recover for a specified time.
is measured. At the end of recovery period the angle of recovery is measured"

12. Drape %: 60-75%
13. Dimensional Stability to dry heat at 105 +-2 deg C in %, Warp:1%, Weft:1%--> maximum.
In this method a sample of fabric is heated by contact with a plain, hot surface under accurately known conditions and changes in specimen dimensions are measured.

14. Dimensional change on washing percent: Warp:2, Weft:2--> Maximum
16. Pilling resistance ( after 5 hours of test): 4--> Minimum
17. Soil Release Efficiency (percent): 80--> Minimum

BIS has to say the following about this property:

"The soiling of textile fabrics is one of the most difficult problems associated with their use. Cotton and cellulosic fabrics do not pose a severe problem of soiling because of their high moisture regain. Nevertheless, the resin finished cellulosic fabrics and fabrics rich in synthetic fibres pose a severe problem of soiling during their usage. The soiling of fabrics is due to: ( a ) interfacial attraction or Van der Wall forces, ( b ) electrostatic attraction, ( c ) mechanical forces, and ( d ) hydrophobicity of the fibres.

The soil is mainly of two types, namely, dry or particulate soil and oily or greasy soil. The former which includes particles of dust, sand, earth, soot, metallic oxides and carbon with tarry substances may be hydrophilic ( metallic oxides ) or hydrophobic ( carbon ) in nature. The latter includes glycerides, long chain fatty acids and alcohols, lubricating oil, etc, which are mostly hydrophobic.

A specimen of the fabric under test is soiled with synthetic soil, washed under prescribed conditions and dried. Simultaneously, a control specimen and a control washed specimen are taken from the fabric under
test. The soil resistance and soil release efficiency of the fabric is determined using the spectrophotometer."

18. pH value of aqueous extract (Hot Method): 6.0 to 8.0

BIS talks about this property:

"The @H of aqueous extract of the textiles affords a useful index to its processing history. In addition, it is becoming more common to demand that the textile, in its various forms, shall conform to certain limits in respect of its acidity or-alkalinity, often expressed in terms of PH values of aqueous extracts."

Under Hot Method, a flask known as Erlenmeyer flask is washed with distilled or deionized water. One test specimen is taken and added to this 100 ml of distilled or deionized. water.The contents are boiled for one hour under reflux condenser. The contents are cooled to room temperature and pH of aqueous extract is measured.

19. Abrasion Resistance ( 5000 cycles) ( Martindale): 4
20. Limited Flame Spread Index : 2--> Minimum

Saturday, 22 March 2014

Technical Specifications of Some Popular Synthetic Fabrics-1

Here are the technical specifications of some of the popular synthetic fabrics used in India for Ethnic wear.


Warp is a combination of 62/36/1770-"S" Semi dull crimp polyester and 62/36/1880-"Z" semi dull crimp Polyester(2 x2). Here 62 is the denier, 36 is the number of filaments and 1770 is the no of twists per meter.

Weft is the same as warp.

Total number of ends are 3840 in a reed space of 51 inches with a reed and pick of (72 x2) x 68. In a 100 meter cloth the weight of warp is 3.1 kg and that of weft is 2.5 kg to make a total of 5.6 kg of cloth.

Dani Chiffon

Warp is a combination of 20/6/1400 full dull Nylon "S" and "Z" and weft is the same as warp.

Total number of ends are 4080 in a reed space of 40 inches with a reed and pick of (96 x2) x 80. In a 100 meter cloth the weight of warp is 1.05 kg and that of weft is 0.75 kg to make a total of 1.8 kg of cloth.

Poonam Dani Chiffon

A popular fabric for dupatta is Poonam Dani Chiffon. It is a 100% polyester in plain weave. Warp is a combination of filament polyester yarn 75/36 denier twist 1800/S and 75/36 denier with 1800 TPM in Z direction. Weft is Filament polyester yarn with 75/36 denier twist is 1800/S and 75/36 denier with a twist of 1800/Z. It has a general width of 113 cm and a finished weight of 65 GSM.

Ideal tensile strength by grab test method for this fabric is 13.2 Kg for warp and 19.6 kg for weft. Tear strength with KMI tester is 3520 grams for warp and 3392 grams for weft.

It should have a rating of 5 in colorfastness to sunlight, washing, crocking, heat press and perspiration. Dimensional stability should have a tolerance of 2% after 3 cycle. Bow/Skew should be within 2%. It should have a rating of 5 in shade change and pilling under an abrasion testing of 10000 cycles. Length wise washing shrinkage should be 2% and width wise 1% maximum

100 x 100 Georgette

Warp is a combination of 100/44/1770 Viscose "S" and "Z", Weft is same as warp.

Total number of ends are 3276 in a reed space of 50 inches with a reed and pick of (64 x2) x 60. In a 100 meter cloth the weight of warp is 4.3 kg and that of weft is 3.6 kg to make a total of 7.9 kg of cloth.

Marble Chiffon
Warp is a combination of 50/48/2800-"S" of Semi Dull flat Poly and Weft is a combination of 50/48/3025 Z semi dull flat poly yarn. 

Total number of ends are 4600 in a reed space of 58 inches with a reed and pick of (76 x2) x 76. In a 100 meter cloth the weight of warp is 3.1 kg and that of weft is 3 kg to make a total of 6.1 kg of cloth.

China Yoryu Saree

Warp is a combination of 50/36 Bright flat Poly Sized and Weft is a combination of 50/36 Bright flat Poly Sized yarn.

Total number of ends are 6000 in a reed space of 59 inches with a reed and pick of (100 x2) x 80. In a 100 meter cloth the weight of warp is 3.9 kg and that of weft is 2.9 kg to make a total of 6.8 kg of cloth.

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